|Title||[Causes of drinking-water contamination in rain-fed cisterns in three villages in Ramallah and Al-Bireh District, Palestine]|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2004|
|Authors||Al-Khatib, IA, Orabi, M|
|Journal||East Mediterr Health J|
|ISBN Number||1020-3397 (Print)<br/>1020-3397 (Linking)|
|Keywords||*Water Microbiology, Causality, Colony Count, Microbial, Disinfection, Enterobacter/isolation & purification, Escherichia coli/isolation & purification, Humans, Klebsiella/isolation & purification, Middle East, Rain/*microbiology, Sewage, Water Pollution/*analysis/prevention & control/statistics & numerical data, Water Purification, Water Supply/*analysis/statistics & numerical data|
We studied the biological characteristics of drinking-water in three villages in Ramallah and al-Bireh district, by testing the total coliforms. Water samples were collected from rain-fed cisterns between October and November 2001. The results show that 87% of tested samples of drinking-water were highly contaminated and in need of coagulation, filtration and disinfection based on the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking-water, and 10.5% had low contamination and were in need of treatment by disinfection only. Only 2.5% of the tested samples were not contaminated and were suitable for drinking without treatment. The main cause of drinking-water con tamination was the presence of cesspits, wastewater and solid waste dumping sites near the cisterns.