We investigated the prevalence of diabetes and associated factors in a cross-sectional survey of an urban Palestinian population of 492 men and women aged 30-65 years. The oral glucose tolerance test was used to diagnose diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance. World Health Organization-recommended survey protocols were followed. Diabetes was found in 12.0% of the survey population (including 9.4% previously diagnosed), and impaired glucose tolerance in 5.9%. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age and sex revealed body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and family history of diabetes to be significantly independently associated with diabetes.