Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is a traditional tobacco use method that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) and has resurged in recent decades. WTS rates in the EMR are the highest worldwide, especially among youth, exceeding cigarette-smoking rates in select jurisdictions. Despite its documented harm, the growing prevalence of WTS has been met with a poor regulatory response globally. At the epicenter of the WTS epidemic, countries in the EMR are in urgent need of effective tobacco control strategies that consider the particularities of WTS. A roundtable session, titled “Monitoring and Combating WTS Through Taxation and the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS),” was held as part of the 7th Eastern Mediterranean Public Health Network’s regional conference. The session provided an overview of evidence to date about WTS policy control, the taxation of WTS, volumetric choice experiments for tobacco control research, and monitoring WTS patterns and control policies among adults and youth through the GTSS. The session highlighted the need to update the regulation of WTS in the current global tobacco control policy frameworks and the need for developing tailored, evidence-based, and WTS-specific regulations to complement current tobacco control policy frameworks. Raising taxes to increase the price of tobacco products is the single most effective tobacco control measure, and these taxes can fund expanded government health programs. The effectiveness of taxation can be measured via volumetric choice experiments, which allow for the estimation of a complete set of own-price and cross-price elasticities that are instrumental for fiscal policy simulations. Finally, the surveillance of WTS (for example, through the GTSS) is critical to informing policy and decision makers. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) and Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) are 2 GTSS products that provide nationally representative data among students aged 13-15 years and persons ≥15 years, respectively.