On 18-19 March, the fourth annual Lancet Palestinian Health Alliance Conference on the “Health of Palestinians Inside and Outside the Occupied Palestinian Territory” took place in Cairo, Egypt. Jointly organized by the Institute of Community and Public Health at Birzeit University and the Center for Research on Population and Health at the Faculty of Health Sciences,American University of Beirut, the yearly conference is part of the activities of the Lancet Palestinian Health Alliance, a network of Palestinian, regional and international researchers, committed to the highest scientific standards in describing, analyzing and evaluating the health and health care of Palestinians. The Alliance seeks to contribute to the international scientific literature and to develop local evidence-based policy and practices. Over 150 participants attended the conference from across the globe, including the occupied Palestinian territory, Lebanon, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Europe and the United States. A record high of 140 abstract submissions were reviewed, of which 62 (22 oral and 40 poster presentations) were accepted for presentation. Topics addressed a broad range of health issues, including mental health; political and structural violence in relation to health; war and environmental pollution; children’s health; nutritional and behavioral risk factors and health; fertility, infertility and maternal and child health, non-communicable diseases as well as a special session on the Gaza Strip following the aftermath of the 2012 Israeli war. The conference was welcomed as a great success, addressing a variety of pressing issues related to Palestinian health, and engaging participants of many and diverse backgrounds.